TOBACCO USE IN FOOD FACILITIES IN RIYADH 2011-2012 د. سعود عبدالله العبودي
Due to the large effects of smoking and draws many countries to prevent the use of tobacco in public places and food facilities, there is need to know the effect of the smoking on the community.
Among the most important things that is linked to tobacco use in society is to be used in the food facilities areas such as restaurants, cafes, and others.
Other countries have information and statistics show the using of tobacco in food facilities, but in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia does not have any information or statistics refer to using of tobacco in the food facilities.
In this paper we will study the using of tobacco in food facilities and its effect on the people and their attitude, knowledge, resulting from its use, if any
We are also examining the relationship between the use of tobacco in places providing food and profit and the quality of food served and other diseases.
The coverage of H1N1 vaccination, the change in acceptance of receiving the vaccine and comparison between its coverage and that of the seasonal flue among nurses in a major Academic hospital in Saudi Arabia. د. عبدالله محمد عرفة
The objective of this study is to investigate the acceptability of H1N1 vaccine among Health Care Workers in a major public hospital (KKUH), and to observe the reasons behind low or high vaccine acceptance . In the past years, about six in 10 healthcare workers nationwide did not take the annual flu shot, even though, the public health experts illustrated its significance. Last year, because of the H1N1 flu terror, 60% of HCW were vaccinated according to exploratory data. We enrolled 415 nurses [ 26 male ( 6.4% ) and 383 female ( 93.6% ) with average age of 36 years ].in a cross-sectional self-administered anonymous survey . The study shows that 81.3% of the nurses received the 2010-2011 H1N1 vaccine. 76.9% of the male and 81.6% of the female in the study received the 2010-2011 H1N1 vaccine .regarding the reasons behind receiving the H1N1 vaccine are 90.4% due to self protection, 84.7% to protect others, and 38.1% being health care worker. According to the study, H1N1 2010/2009 vaccination rate was very low ( 36.2% ). However, in regards to H1N1 2011/2010, this study has proven that the rate of vaccination among nurses in King Khalid University Hospital is getting high ( 81.3% ). vaccination. Such a sharp increase in vaccination rate can be due to many interrelated factors including accessibility to vaccine, education, awareness, incidence of disease, and effective administrative system.
Efficacy of local subcutaneous anesthesia versus intramuscular opioid sedation in extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy: a randomized study s.alshahrani
To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of local subcutaneous (SC) anesthesia compared with intramuscular (IM) opioid sedation during extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) in a randomized study.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
After informed consent was obtained, 125 patients with urolithiasis who were scheduled for SWL were included in the study. The patients in each treatment session were randomized to receive either IM meperidine (group A) or SC infiltration of 10 mL 2% lidocaine and 10 mL 0.5% bupivacaine at the area of shockwave entry (group B). Degree of pain was rated by the patient using a five-point visual analogue scale (VAS).
The study included 88 (70.4%) men and 37 (29.6%) women with a mean age of 47.6 ± 12.5 years and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 28.16 ± 4.67 kg/m2. Of the patients, 89, 26, and 10 received a single, two, or more than two treatment sessions, respectively (176 sessions). Maximum stone length was 10.68 ± 5.12 mm. Pretreatment stent placement was performed in 17 (13.6%) patients (28 sessions). Group A comprised 89 treatment sessions while 87 were involved in group B. Both groups were similar. Supplemental intrvenous sedation was needed in two (2.5%) and four (4.6%) sessions in groups A and B, respectively. VAS was not different between both groups (P...
Prostatitis and male infertility s.alshahrani
The prostate gland plays an important role in male reproduction. Inflammation of theprostate gland (prostatitis) is a common health problem affecting many young and middleaged men. Prostatitis is considered a correctable cause of male infertility, but the pathophy-siology and appropriate treatment options of prostatitis in male infertility remain unclear.This literature review will focus on current data regarding prostatitis and its impact on maleinfertility.
Characterizing semen parameters and their association with reactive oxygen species in infertile men s.alshahrani
Background A routine semen analysis is a first step in the laboratory evaluation of the infertile male. In addition, other tests such as measurement of reactive oxygen species can provide additional information regarding the etiology of male infertility. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of semen parameters with reactive oxygen species (ROS) in two groups: healthy donors of unproven and proven fertility and infertile men. In addition, we sought to establish an ROS cutoff value in seminal plasma at which a patient may be predicted to be infertile. Methods Seminal ejaculates from 318 infertile patients and 56 donors, including those with proven fertility were examined for semen parameters and ROS levels. Correlations were determined between traditional semen parameters and levels of ROS among the study participants. ROS levels were measured using chemiluminescence assay. Receiver operating characteristics curves were obtained to calculate a cut-off value for these tests. Results Proven Donors (n = 28) and those with Proven Donors within the past 2 years (n = 16) showed significantly better semen parameters than All Patients group (n = 318). Significantly lower ROS levels were seen in the two Proven Donor groups compared with All Patients. The cutoff value of ROS in Proven Donors was determined to be 91.9 RLU/s with a specificity of 68.8% and a sensitivity of 93.8%.
The effect of low level leukocytospermia on oxidative stress markers in infertile men s.alshahrani
Leukocytospermia is defined as presence of ≥1 x 106 WBC/mL of the seminal ejaculate. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends peroxidase staining as the standard method for the detection of semen leukocytes [1,2]. The incidence of leukocytospermia ranges from 10 - 20% among infertile men. Both morphologically abnormal spermatozoa and leukocytes produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). The polymorphonuclear neutrophils and macrophages are the main components of seminal leukocytes which can generate significantly higher (>100-fold) quantities of ROS, overwhelming the ROS-scavenging mechanisms in seminal plasma and resulting in oxidative stress and damage to spermatozoa. The presence of very few activated leukocytes can produce a detectable amount of ROS [3,4]. Therefore, even a very low number of leukocytes in the sperm suspension may influence the integrity of sperm and, consequently, the outcome of assisted reproduction treatment . Leukocytes contributed directly to ROS production and release and indirectly through the leukocyte-stimulated sperm. Such stimulation may be via direct contact or mediated by soluble products released by the leukocytes. The goal of our study was to assess the effect of low level leukocytospermia on semen quality and oxidative stress markers in infertile men. Materials and methods In this prospective study, 211 infertile patients with no history of genital tract infections or varicocele were included. Semen samples were examined for sperm concentration, motility, seminal leukocyte levels (Endtz test) , reactive oxygen species (ROS) by chemiluminescence assay, and sperm DNA damage by TUNEL test. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on their seminal leukocyte levels. Group 1: no seminal leukocytes (n = 153); group 2: low level leukocytospermia (0.1 -1 X 106 WBC/mL; n = 22); and group 3: leukocytospermia (>1 X 106 WBC/mL; n = 36).
Effect of advancing paternal age on semen parameters and seminal oxidative stress markers in infertile men s.alshahrani
Background High rate of subfertility and adverse pregnancy related outcomes associated with childbearing are seen after age 40. In contrast to oogenesis, spermatogenesis continues in elderly men. Adult male germ cells pass through significantly more mitotic replications than the germ cells in adult female. In men, there is an age associated increase in the incidence of breaks in sperm DNA, decrease in apoptosis, and a higher frequency of point mutations. Advanced paternal age is associated with an increased time to pregnancy and decreased pregnancy rates. After adjusting for female age, conception during a 12-month period was > 30 percent less likely for men over 40 years of age as compared to men < 30 years of age . Similarly, a five-fold increase in time to pregnancy was reported in men >45 years compared to men <25 years of age . Age of the husband was the most significant factor contributing to a decreased probability of a pregnancy . Advanced paternal age may result in congenital anomalies in progeny due to an increase in new autosomal dominant mutations such as achondroplasia; Apert, Waardenburg, Crouzon, Pfeiffer, and Marfan syndromes . The goal of our study was to investigate the impact of male ageing on semen quality and seminal oxidative stress (OS) markers. Materials and methods In this study, we examined the medical records of 472 infertile men referred to our laboratory between 2008 and 2012. Based on their age, patients were divided into group 1: ≤ 30 years (n = 69); group 2: 31-40 years (n = 298); and group 3:> 40 years (n = 105). We evaluated the conventional semen parameters (WHO, 2010)  and OS markers: seminal ROS (chemiluminescence assay), total antioxidant...
Impact of World Health Organization (WHO) new standards on the referral pattern of infertile men for assisted reproduction s.alshahrani
Background New reference values for semen parameters are significantly lower in the WHO 5th edition (2010) than in the 4th edition [1,2]. Some of the highlights of the fifth edition were: 1) subjects included in this edition had < 12 months’ time to pregnancy, 2) semen analyses results were pooled and analyzed for reference values, 3) laboratories generating the data used standardized methods for semen analysis according to WHO manual available at the time of original studies and 4) one-sided lower reference limits (5th centile) were generated and proposed as lower cut-off limits for normal values. The new reference values were aimed at providing evidencebased thresholds to assist clinicians in calculating relative fertility of the patient. The goal of our study was to examine the impact of the new WHO reference values on the referral pattern of infertile men referred for assisted reproduction (IUI, IVF/ICSI). Materials and methods In this study, we examined the medical records of 362 infertile, non-azoospermic men referred to the Andrology laboratory between 2011 and 2012. Patients were divided into 2 groups; Group A: patients evaluated in 2011 by the WHO 4th edition (n = 200)  and Group B: patients evaluated in 2012 by the WHO 5th edition (n = 162) . All patients were examined for conventional semen parameters including sperm morphology. The number of total referrals for IUI or IVF/ICSI was recorded. ART outcomes were not evaluated in this study. Results A significant decline in the number of IVF/ICSI referrals was seen (71.5% vs. 53.1%; P<0.05) as well as the number of patients with abnormal sperm morphology declined significantly (76.5% vs. 30.9%; P<0.05) with the introduction of new reference values for semen analysis (WHO 5th edition). In cases...
Introduction to Critical Reading Questions (CRQ) جمعان محمد الزهراني
This summary was prepared in cooperation with my colleagues in SAU & others in NGH in Riyadh to simplify and make practical guide for those interested in CRQ
Daytime sleepiness among medical students & its impact on academic performance جمعان محمد الزهراني
A cross sectional study conducted at college of medicine at SAU to know the prevalence of sleepiness among students and to explore the consequences on acdemic and daily life