Abstract: Cancer, which killed ten million people in 2020, is expected to become the world’s leading health problem and financial burden. Despite the development of effective therapeutic approaches, cancer-related deaths have increased by 25.4% in the last ten years. Current therapies promote apoptosis and oxidative stress DNA damage and inhibit inflammatory mediators and angiogenesis from providing temporary relief. Thioredoxin-binding protein (TXNIP) causes oxidative stress by inhibiting the function of the thioredoxin system. It is an important regulator of many redox-related signal transduction pathways in cells. In cancer cells, it functions as a tumor suppressor protein that inhibits cell proliferation. In addition, TXNIP levels in hemocytes increased after immune stimulation, suggesting that TXNIP plays an important role in immunity. Several studies have provided experimental evidence for the immune modulatory role of TXNIP in cancer impediments. TXNIP also has the potential to act against immune cells in cancer by mediating the JAK-STAT, MAPK, and PI3K/Akt pathways. To date, therapies targeting TXNIP in cancer are still under investigation. This review highlights the role of TXNIP in preventing cancer, as well as recent reports describing its functions in various immune cells, signaling pathways, and promoting action against cancer.
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