The Outcome of BNT162b2, ChAdOx1-Sand mRNA-1273 Vaccines and Two Boosters: A Prospective Longitudinal Real-World Study
Abstract: To date, the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines and booster doses has yet to be evaluated in longitudinal head-to-head studies. This single-center longitudinal study assessed the effectiveness of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, BNT162b2, and mRNA-1273 vaccines and assessed two BNT162b2 boosters in 1550 participants, of whom 26% had comorbidities. In addition, the SARS-CoV-2 antibody dynamics was monitored. A group of 1500 unvaccinated subjects was included as the controls. The study’s endpoint was the development of virologically-proven COVID-19 cases after vaccine completion, while the secondary endpoint was hospitalizations due to severe COVID-19. Overall, 23 (4.6%), 16 (3%), and 18 (3.8%) participants vaccinated with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, BNT162b2, and mRNA-1273, respectively, developed COVID-19 after vaccine completion, with an effectiveness of 89%, 92%, and 90%. Ten COVID-19 cases were reported in participants with comorbidities, three of whom were hospitalized. No hospitalizations occurred after boosters. SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels peaked 2–4 weeks after the second vaccine dose but declined after a mean of 28.50 ± 3.48 weeks. Booster doses significantly enhanced antibody responses. Antibody titers ≤ 154 U/mL were associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 emergence. Thus, COVID-19 vaccines effectively reduced COVID-19 and prevented severe disease. The vaccine-induced SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses declined after 28–32 weeks. Booster doses induced significant maintained responses. SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels may help determine the timing and need for vaccine booster doses.
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